Building a Robust React Application with React Query Library and TypeScript

Anton Ioffe - March 5th 2024 - 10 minutes read

In the rapidly evolving landscape of web development, the combination of React Query and TypeScript has emerged as a powerhouse for building robust and scalable React applications. This article dives deep into harnessing the power of type safety and efficient data fetching and caching mechanisms provided by React Query and TypeScript. From setting up your environment to mastering advanced techniques and optimization strategies, we explore how to elevate your React projects to new heights of reliability and performance. With practical code examples and expert insights, we'll guide you through each step of creating a type-safe application that leverages the best practices for managing server-state in React. Whether you're looking to fortify your existing applications or kickstart a new project with these powerful tools, this article promises to be an invaluable resource for senior-level developers aiming to push the boundaries of modern web development.

Leveraging TypeScript with React Query for Enhanced Type Safety

TypeScript brings a layer of static typing to JavaScript, dramatically enhancing the reliability and maintainability of code, especially in complex applications. It ensures that types are checked at compile time, which significantly reduces the likelihood of runtime errors. When integrated with React Query for data fetching and state management, TypeScript ensures that the data fetched from external sources matches the expected type structure, preventing subtle bugs and inconsistencies in the application state.

One of the key benefits of using TypeScript with React Query is the ability to define types for any data fetched from an API. This is crucial for enhancing type safety throughout the application. By explicitly declaring the shape of the API response, developers can ensure that the data is manipulated and displayed correctly in the UI, avoiding common pitfalls such as accessing undefined properties or incorrectly assuming data types.

interface User {
    id: number;
    name: string;
    email: string;

function useFetchUsers() {
    return useQuery<User[], Error>('users', fetchUsers);

In the above example, the useFetchUsers hook uses React Query's useQuery hook to fetch a list of users. The hook is explicitly typed with <User[], Error>, indicating that the expected return type is an array of User objects, and any error thrown will be of type Error. This ensures that inside the fetchUsers function, any manipulation of the response data is type-checked against the User interface.

Leveraging TypeScript with React Query also simplifies state management in React applications by providing a predictable structure for API responses and ensuring that this structure is consistently enforced across components. By defining types for the initial state, loading state, error state, and success state, developers can create a robust system for handling asynchronous operations and updating the UI accordingly.

In conclusion, the combination of TypeScript and React Query in a React application offers a powerful solution for managing asynchronous data with enhanced type safety. Through the use of TypeScript's static typing, developers can catch potential errors early in the development process, leading to more reliable and maintainable code. Furthermore, by defining and enforcing the types of API responses, applications can achieve a higher level of stability and predictability, reducing the likelihood of runtime errors and improving the overall user experience.

Setting Up the React Query Environment in a TypeScript Project

To incorporate React Query into a TypeScript-powered React project, begin by installing React Query using your terminal. Navigate to your project directory and execute npm i @tanstack/react-query or if you're using Yarn, yarn add @tanstack/react-query. This step is fundamental because it lays down the React Query library into your project, allowing you to leverage its state management and data fetching capabilities seamlessly in your TypeScript application.

Once React Query is part of your project, you'll need to set up the QueryClient. This entity is crucial for configuring React Query to match your application's needs, including settings for retries, refetch intervals, and caching. Here's how you can instantiate a QueryClient:

import { QueryClient } from '@tanstack/react-query';

const queryClient = new QueryClient();

The next step involves integrating the QueryClientProvider with your React application. This is accomplished by wrapping your application's root component with the QueryClientProvider component and passing the queryClient instance as a prop. This setup ensures that any component within your application can have access to React Query's features.

import { QueryClient, QueryClientProvider } from '@tanstack/react-query';

const queryClient = new QueryClient();

function App() {
  return (
    <QueryClientProvider client={queryClient}>
      {/* App components go here */}

Additionally, setting global default settings for React Query is a straightforward process that significantly enhances your application's predictability and maintainability, especially when combined with TypeScript's type system. You can define these settings when creating the QueryClient instance. In aligning with TypeScript, you can utilize interfaces to ensure that your settings adhere to the expected types, thereby reducing errors and improving developer experience.

interface QueryClientDefaults {
  queries: {
    retry: number;
    refetchOnWindowFocus: boolean;

const defaultSettings: QueryClientDefaults = {
  queries: {
    retry: 1,
    refetchOnWindowFocus: false,

const queryClient = new QueryClient({
  defaultOptions: defaultSettings,

This concise approach not only ensures type safety but also grants you the flexibility to adjust React Query's behavior to fit your application's unique requirements, benefiting from TypeScript's advanced type-checking features.

Fetching, Caching, and Managing Data with React Query and TypeScript

React Query significantly simplifies fetching, caching, and managing server state in React applications. By utilizing hooks like useQuery for fetching data and useMutation for updating it, developers can streamline their data management processes. However, when combined with TypeScript, React Query's power is truly unleashed, offering an exceptionally type-safe way to handle asynchronous data operations. Properly typing these hooks not only ensures that the components consuming this data are receiving it in the expected format but also aids in catching potential errors early during the development process.

For instance, when fetching data using useQuery, TypeScript allows for defining the expected structure of the query's response through generics. This enforces a contract between the remote API and the frontend application, ensuring that any discrepancies in the data structure are identified at compile time. A common mistake, however, is not appropriately handling or typing the API responses, leading to runtime errors that could have been avoided. By rigorously typing responses and errors, developers can create a more resilient and maintainable codebase.

interface User {
  id: string;
  name: string;

const useFetchUsers = () => {
  return useQuery<User[], Error>('users', async () => {
    const response = await fetch('/api/users');
    if (!response.ok) {
      throw new Error('Network response was not ok');
    return response.json();

In the example above, the useQuery hook is typed with User[] for the expected data and Error for any potential errors, making the asynchronous data fetching process predictably type-safe. This approach enhances component reusability and modularity, as any component using this hook will have a clear understanding of the data structure it operates on.

Another crucial aspect of effectively leveraging React Query with TypeScript involves handling mutations through useMutation. Just like with fetching data, mutations also benefit greatly from strict typing, ensuring that both the mutation input and the response adhere to defined interfaces. This strict typing is essential for operations that update the server state, as it solidifies the expected outcomes of such operations.

interface AddUserMutation {
  name: string;

const useAddUser = () => {
  return useMutation<User, Error, AddUserMutation>((newUser) => {
    return fetch('/api/users', {
      method: 'POST',
      body: JSON.stringify(newUser),
      headers: {
        'Content-Type': 'application/json',
    }).then((response) => response.json());

Through examples like these, it's clear that using React Query and TypeScript in tandem provides a robust solution for data fetching and state management in React applications. Nevertheless, a vigilant approach towards typing and error handling is crucial to avoid common pitfalls and ensure that the application remains robust and maintainable. By embracing this combination, developers can create more scalable, reliable, and cleaner codebases, ready to tackle the complexities of modern web development.

Advanced React Query Techniques with TypeScript

Optimistic updates represent an advanced technique where the UI is updated ahead of the server response to provide a snappier user experience. In TypeScript, correctly typing optimistic updates requires understanding the data structure affected by the update. For example, when a user adds a comment to a post, the optimistic update would immediately show the comment without waiting for server confirmation. Leveraging TypeScript, developers can define strict types for the update function, ensuring that the temporary UI state aligns with the server's eventual response. A common approach is to use TypeScript's utility types to temporarily extend the data model to include potential states of the optimistic update.

interface Comment {
  id: string;
  text: string;
// Optimistically adding a comment
const {mutate} = [useMutation](, {
  // TypeScript ensures the optimistic update matches the Comment type
  onMutate: async (newComment: Comment) => {
    await queryClient.cancelQueries('comments');
    const previousComments = queryClient.getQueryData<Comment[]>('comments');
    if (previousComments) {
      queryClient.setQueryData('comments', [...previousComments, newComment]);
    return {previousComments};

Pagination is another crucial feature for handling large datasets effectively. TypeScript can be used to enforce type safety on pagination parameters, such as page number and page size. This enforcement makes sure that any function responsible for fetching paginated data correctly interprets the passed arguments, reducing the risk of runtime errors. For instance, typing the parameters for a fetchPosts function ensures that only numbers can be passed as arguments for page control.

type FetchPostsParams = {
  pageNumber: number;
  pageSize: number;
const fetchPosts = async ({pageNumber, pageSize}: FetchPostsParams): Promise<Post[]> => {
  // Implementation fetching posts

Infinite query handling is a sophisticated version of pagination, allowing for endless scrolling experiences. TypeScript plays a pivotal role in defining the structure of the infinite query's data and the parameters needed for subsequent data fetches. By clearly typing the return data and fetch parameters, developers can rigidly structure the sequence of data fetching, ensuring each fetch operation adheres to the expected types.

interface FetchMorePostsParams {
  lastFetchedId: string;
const fetchMorePosts = async ({lastFetchedId}: FetchMorePostsParams): Promise<Post[]> => {
  // Implementation fetching subsequent posts

Implementing these advanced React Query features with TypeScript's static typing introduces a layer of security that guards against common data fetching and state management pitfalls. Stringent typing ensures that optimistic updates are reversible, pagination logic adheres to specified parameters, and infinite data fetching operations are predictably managed. This combination not only fortifies the application's data layer but also amplifies the development experience by providing clear contracts for data manipulation.

By embracing TypeScript's static typing alongside React Query's robust data fetching capabilities, developers can craft advanced, high-performance web applications. The synergy between these technologies encourages a more deliberate and type-safe approach to managing async data, leading to applications that are both fast and reliable. Engaging with these advanced techniques prompts developers to think critically about data structure and flow within their applications, fostering a deeper understanding of both the tools at their disposal and the applications they are building.

Testing and Optimizing React Query Usage in TypeScript Applications

To effectively test components and hooks that utilize React Query in a TypeScript application, adopting a strategy that ensures type safety is crucial. This involves leveraging TypeScript's static typing alongside mocking libraries such as Jest and React Testing Library to simulate server responses, ensuring your tests accurately represent real-world scenarios. For instance, when testing a custom hook that fetches user data, you can use Jest to mock the React Query useQuery call, returning a predefined response that matches the expected TypeScript type. This approach guarantees that your tests not only verify the logic but also adhere to the type constraints defined in your application, reducing the likelihood of type-related bugs.

import { renderHook } from '@testing-library/react-hooks';
import { useCustomHook } from './hooks';
import { QueryClient, QueryClientProvider } from '@tanstack/react-query';
import { mocked } from 'jest-mock';

// Mock server response with TypeScript type
const mockUserData = { id: 1, name: 'John Doe' };
jest.mock('./api', () => ({
  fetchUserData: mocked(async () => mockUserData),

test('useCustomHook returns data correctly', async () => {
  const queryClient = new QueryClient();
  const wrapper = ({ children }) => (
    <QueryClientProvider client={queryClient}>{children}</QueryClientProvider>
  const { result, waitFor } = renderHook(() => useCustomHook(), { wrapper });

  await waitFor(() => result.current.isSuccess);

Optimizing React Query usage involves several techniques aimed at improving performance and efficiency in TypeScript applications. Key among these techniques is query prefetching, which can dramatically enhance user experience by loading data before it's needed. In the context of TypeScript, implementing prefetching should be done with careful consideration of the types involved. Properly typing your prefetch queries ensures that the data manipulation elsewhere in your application remains type-safe and predictable.

// TypeScript type for prefetching data
const prefetchUserData = async (queryClient: QueryClient, userId: string) => {
  await queryClient.prefetchQuery(['user', userId], fetchUserData);

Cache management is another critical aspect of optimizing React Query usage. Effective cache configuration can reduce the number of network requests, saving bandwidth and accelerating application responsiveness. In TypeScript applications, it’s essential to configure your cache settings to align with the types of data your application handles. This might mean defining specific cache times for different data types or structuring your cache keys in a type-safe manner.

One common pitfall in using React Query with TypeScript is overlooking the importance of accurately typing the error states. Ensuring that your application can gracefully handle and type-check errors during data fetching processes is essential. Here, TypeScript's utility types can be particularly beneficial, allowing you to define a type that encompasses both the data and error states your components might encounter.

// Use TypeScript to define a type that includes both data and error states
type UseQueryReturnType = {
  data: UserData | undefined;
  error: Error | null;

In conclusion, thoroughly testing and optimizing React Query usage in TypeScript applications not only boosts performance but also enhances code safety and maintainability. By meticulously applying type-safe testing strategies and leveraging React Query's optimization features within the bounds of TypeScript's type system, developers can build robust, efficient, and scalable React applications.


This article explores the benefits of using React Query and TypeScript together to build robust and scalable React applications. It highlights how TypeScript enhances type safety and data fetching, while React Query simplifies state management. The article provides practical code examples and expert insights, guiding senior-level developers through the process of creating type-safe applications. The key takeaway is that the combination of React Query and TypeScript empowers developers to create reliable and performant applications. One challenging task for readers is to implement optimistic updates or pagination using React Query and TypeScript in their own projects. This task encourages readers to apply the concepts learned in the article and deepen their understanding of these advanced techniques.

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