Setting Up Redux with Next.js

Anton Ioffe - January 13th 2024 - 10 minutes read

Welcome to the interdisciplinary world of Redux in the Next.js framework, where the timeless pursuit of robust application state management collides with the cutting-edge capabilities of server-rendered React applications. In this article, we're peeling back the layers of this potent combination to unearth the synergy that Redux can bring to the mix. Whether you are seeking to refine your SSR strategy with Redux's reliable state container or master the intricate dance of state hydration and API orchestration, we've got you covered. Join us as we navigate through setting up Redux with Next.js, detailing a vault of best practices and cautionary tales that will empower you to architect scalable, maintainable, and performant web apps that stand the test of time.

Redux's Role in Next.js Architecture

In a Next.js application, Redux serves as a cohesive state management layer that stands apart from React's own state system. With Next.js' server-side rendering capabilities, a web app can deliver content much faster to the user since the initial rendering occurs on the server. However, the challenge arises when the server-rendered page must reconcile its state with the client upon loading. In such scenarios, Redux's ability to create a predictable state container becomes imperative. By initiating the Redux store server-side and passing the initial state down to the client, developers can ensure that the state remains consistent across both the server and client render cycles, thus avoiding hydration issues.

When it comes to static generation with Next.js, a feature that pre-renders pages at build time, Redux amplifies this mechanism by potentially holding onto the state needed for several requests or user sessions. Unlike the built-in stateful components in React that reset upon page unloads, Redux's global store preserves state across different pages and sessions. This ability is crucial in maintaining a seamless user experience, particularly with data that should persist beyond a single page visit or user interaction.

On the client side, Redux plays an equally important role. Once the Next.js application has loaded, client-side state management takes over. Redux maintains its standing as a centralized store, managing the global state that can be difficult to handle with React's Context API alone, especially in larger apps with deep component trees. The state managed by Redux can be easily accessed from any component, preventing the need to prop-drill or excessively re-render components due to local state changes.

Redux also greatly benefits Next.js architecture by offering improved state predictability and debuggability. With the help of Redux DevTools, developers can easily track state changes and actions dispatched throughout their application. This level of oversight is especially useful when working with asynchronous data fetching and handling side effects, which are common in server-rendered applications. The ability to trace and debug every state mutation helps in maintaining the health and consistency of the application's state.

Lastly, in Next.js, server-side APIs and routes can interact with the Redux store to pre-populate data and reduce client-side fetching. By leveraging Redux in this interconnected setup, developers can efficiently manage state while also taking advantage of Next.js's built-in optimizations such as incremental static regeneration. This reduces the amount of duplicate data fetching and ensures that users receive the most up-to-date content with minimal loading times. Redux's role is therefore central to achieving a responsive and efficient state management system within the Next.js framework.

Crafting the Redux Store for SSR and Hydration

In the context of Next.js, configuring the Redux store for server-side rendering (SSR) necessitates a careful approach to ensure per-request store creation and appropriate hydration on the client side. To start, create a function that configures the store anew for each incoming server request, thereby avoiding the sharing of state between requests, which could result in data leaks and inconsistent rendering. Here's an example of how to set up a function that returns a new store instance:

import { configureStore } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';
import { createWrapper } from 'next-redux-wrapper';

const makeStore = context => configureStore({
    reducer: rootReducer,
    // Additional middleware can be passed here
    middleware: (getDefaultMiddleware) => getDefaultMiddleware(),
    // Optional: Add preloadedState if needed

export const wrapper = createWrapper(makeStore);

On the server side, each request should then use this function to instantiate a new store, and the status of the store is serialized and sent to the client as part of the initial HTML response. It’s crucial to transform any non-serializable parts of the state to a serializable form to prevent errors. On the client side, the Redux store is re-initialized using the incoming state from the server. The Redux store’s rehydration must seamlessly apply the server's state, ideally in the _app.js file like so:

import { wrapper } from '../store';

function MyApp({ Component, pageProps }) {
  // Additional app-level setup can go here
  return <Component {...pageProps} />;

export default wrapper.withRedux(MyApp);

For data rehydration, handling the HYDRATE action is essential. Incorporate a base reducer that manages this action by merging the server's state with the existing client state:

import { HYDRATE } from 'next-redux-wrapper';

const rootReducer = (state = {}, action) => {
    switch (action.type) {
        case HYDRATE:
            // Attention to the fact that action.payload must overwrite the appropriate state slices as needed
            return { ...state, ...action.payload };
            return state;

Determine the specifics of state merging on a per-slice or per-reducer basis, considering the nuances of the application’s state shape and requirements. Serialize only the necessary slices of state using a method like JSON.stringify when sending state from the server to the client within getServerSideProps or getStaticProps, rather than the entire store, for security and performance reasons:

export async function getServerSideProps(context) {
    const store =;
    // Perform actions such as store.dispatch() as needed
    const state = store.getState();
    const serializedState = JSON.stringify(state.essentialSlice); // Only serialize required slices

    return { props: { initialState: serializedState } };

export async function getStaticProps(context) {
    // Perform actions and serialize state similar to getServerSideProps
    // ...

Finally, always validate and sanitize the state during the deserialization process to protect against potential security threats such as XSS. This careful handling of the store and state between server and client contributes to a secure and efficient SSR and SPA hybrid architecture in a Next.js application utilizing Redux.

Structuring Redux with Next.js Pages and API Routes

In a Next.js application with Redux, it's crucial to organize the Redux-related files in a way that complements the file-system-based routing mechanism of Next.js. A typical structure might involve a store directory at the project's root, with subdirectories for slices, actions, and reducers. Each page within the pages directory can then correspond to a slice of the Redux state, encapsulating its own actions and reducers. This modular approach allows developers to easily track which parts of the state are relevant to different pages, enhancing readability and maintainability. Consolidating related logic in this manner also aids in reusability, as common functionality can be abstracted into shared slices.

Reducer composition plays a pivotal role in structuring Redux within a Next.js app. By leveraging the combineReducers method from Redux, developers can create a comprehensive root reducer that maps state from various slices to the corresponding pages. This ensures that state changes remain predictable and traceable across the application. When dealing with API routes, this composition becomes even more important as it prevents any inadvertent coupling of unrelated state changes, keeping each API route's concerns isolated and manageable within their respective slices.

When setting up Redux Thunk or Saga for asynchronous operations, it's advisable to align these with the API routes provided by Next.js. Thunks or sagas can intercept actions to perform async requests, tying seamlessly into Next.js API routes without exposing the complexities of async logic to the components. This helps keep the components declarative and focused on the UI, while the async logic is offloaded to thunks or sagas. When combined with page-based routing, developers can map the async data fetching requirements directly to the page lifecycle events, optimizing data loading strategies.

The usage of Redux in a Next.js application demands attentiveness to how global state interacts with the local state of pages and components. Non-route-specific state should be carefully managed to avoid unintentional resets during page navigation, whereas route-specific state may need deliberate resetting to prevent stale data persistence. A well-organized Redux structure using selectors can efficiently manage this balance, preventing performance bottlenecks and ensuring a smooth user experience.

Finally, the store initial state and preloaded state should be synthesized wisely to optimize the app's performance. By only including necessary initial data and using server-side calculated defaults, the Next.js application can avoid over-fetching data, thus decreasing memory overhead and expediting load times. This calculated approach to state management, along with a well-composed reducer and effective use of Redux middlewares, positions the application for scalability and future growth.

Scaling Redux with Next.js: Middleware and Optimization Strategies

Harnessing middleware like Redux Toolkit (RTK) and RTK Query transforms the way state management is approached within a Next.js application. RTK streamlines store setup, actions, reducers, and sagas/thunks, focusing greatly on reducing boilerplate code. Through RTK's configureStore, developers can apply middleware impacting both performance and developer experience. As applications scale, middleware can handle asynchronous events or side-effectful actions, which often culminate in complex state transitions. Here is an example of how RTK and middleware are used for setup and logic encapsulation.

import { configureStore } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';
import logger from 'redux-logger';
import rootReducer from './rootReducer';

export const store = configureStore({
  reducer: rootReducer,
  middleware: (getDefaultMiddleware) => getDefaultMiddleware().concat(logger),

RTK Query, a vital part of Redux Toolkit, optimizes data fetching and caching operations. This innovation negates the need for managing loading states explicitly. RTK Query’s automatic cache management ensures minimal re-rendering, thus enhancing performance. It abstracts the boilerplate associated with Redux-based data fetching, shifts the focus to defining APIs, and auto-generates hooks that the components can utilize.

import { createApi, fetchBaseQuery } from '@reduxjs/toolkit/query/react';

const apiSlice = createApi({
  reducerPath: 'api',
  baseQuery: fetchBaseQuery({ baseUrl: '/api' }),
  endpoints: (builder) => ({
    getPosts: builder.query({
      query: () => '/posts',

export const { useGetPostsQuery } = apiSlice;

For debugging, the Redux DevTools extension is an indispensable tool, offering a real-time overview of state changes and actions. To maximize its benefits, ensure that the devTools flag is conditionally enabled based on the environment.

export const store = configureStore({
  reducer: rootReducer,
  middleware: getDefaultMiddleware => getDefaultMiddleware().concat(customMiddleware),  
  devTools: process.env.NODE_ENV !== 'production',

Managing the size and complexity of state slices is important to prevent performance issues as applications grow. Breaking down slices into smaller segments and using selectors to extract information can greatly improve responsiveness and maintainability.

// Example of slice structure and selector usage
import { createSelector } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';

const selectDomain = (state) => state.domainData;

const selectItems = createSelector([selectDomain], (domainState) => domainState.items);

// In component file
const items = useSelector(selectItems);

Vigilance is key to avoiding common coding mistakes such as mutating state directly, overly complicated selectors, or unbatched related updates. RTK's integration with Immer guarantees state immutability, while batched actions from React-Redux can minimize re-renders.

// Incorrect direct state mutation
// state.items.push(newItem);

// Correct usage with RTK and Immer
import { createSlice } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';

const slice = createSlice({
  name: 'items',
  initialState: [],
  reducers: {
    addItem: (state, action) => {

// Use of React-Redux's batch function
import { batch } from 'react-redux';

batch(() => {

Middleware and optimization strategies are indispensable in scaling Redux with Next.js. These tools and techniques pave the way for advanced state management while mitigating potential performance hiccups. Are your Redux middleware strategies in place aligning with the scalability goals for your Next.js projects?

Antipatterns and Best Practices in Next.js Redux Applications

Antipatterns in Next.js Redux applications often stem from a misunderstanding of Redux's principles or a misalignment with Next.js's architecture. One such pitfall is overfetching data from the server or the redux store, which can lead to bloated redux state trees and unnecessary network requests. This often happens when developers fetch more information than needed, just because it's available.

// Antipattern: Fetching more data than necessary
export const getUserData = () => {
    return async (dispatch, getState) => {
        const response = await fetchUserData();
        dispatch({ type: 'SET_USER_DATA', payload: });

// Best practice: Fetch only required data
export const getUserData = () => {
    return async (dispatch, getState) => {
        const minimalDataFields = ['id', 'name', 'email'];
        const response = await fetchUserData(minimalFields);
        dispatch({ type: 'SET_USER_MINIMAL_DATA', payload: });

Another antipattern is state duplication. Sometimes, developers mirror backend data structures inside the Redux store without considering how the data will be used within the application. This can lead to unnecessary complications and data syncing issues.

// Antipattern: Mirroring backend data structures
const initialState = {
    user: {},
    userPosts: []

// Best practice: Normalize state shape to what the UI consumes
const initialState = {
    currentUser: {
        details: {},
        posts: []

Using Redux middleware incorrectly can also lead to problems. Developers might misuse middleware like redux-thunk or redux-saga for simple actions that could be handled within the component state.

// Antipattern: Overusing redux-thunk for simple actions
export const setVisibilityFilter = filter => ({
    payload: { filter }

// Best practice: Use local component state for simple UI state
function MyComponent() {
    const [filter, setFilter] = useState('SHOW_ALL');
    // ...

Furthermore, establishing when to use global state over component state can be the difference between a tangled application and a streamlined one. Global states are excellent for data that needs to persist across routes, such as user authentication, but not for ephemeral UI states like form input values or modal visibility.

Lastly, in server-rendered Next.js applications, it's important to consider caching strategies. Incorrectly invalidating the cache or over-reliance on client-side fetching when data could be refreshed on the server can lead to performance issues.

// Best practice: Server caching with proper invalidation
export async function getServerSideProps(context) {
    const data = await fetchCachedData('uniqueKey', fetchDataFunction);
    return { props: { data } };

In summary, best practices in a Next.js Redux application involve thoughtfully deciding what state belongs to Redux, minimizing re-fetching of data, correctly normalizing state shape, and using middleware for complex state logic, not for simple actions. When do you find it crucial to move component state to global state, and how do you ensure that this shift benefits the application’s architecture as a whole?


In this article, we explore how to set up Redux with Next.js, highlighting its role in Next.js architecture, crafting the Redux store for server-side rendering (SSR) and hydration, structuring Redux with Next.js pages and API routes, scaling Redux with middleware and optimization strategies, and best practices and antipatterns in Next.js Redux applications. The key takeaways include the importance of Redux in managing state across server and client render cycles, the need for careful configuration of the Redux store for SSR and hydration, the benefits of structuring Redux in a modular and page-specific manner, the use of middleware and optimization strategies to scale Redux, and the importance of avoiding common antipatterns. The challenging technical task for the reader is to refactor their Redux setup in a Next.js application to incorporate thunk or saga middleware for handling asynchronous logic and to optimize state management for performance.

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