Building Reactive Applications with TanStack Store and React

Anton Ioffe - April 3rd 2024 - 9 minutes read

In the ever-evolving landscape of web development, creating applications that are as dynamic and responsive as they are scalable and maintainable has become a paramount goal for developers. This article delves into the world of building reactive applications with an exciting duo: React and TanStack Store. From unraveling the essence of reactivity in modern web ecosystems to a hands-on guide on constructing a reactive todo application, we journey through optimizing performance pitfalls to exploring advanced techniques for real-world scenarios. Whether you're looking to elevate your knowledge on state management or seeking to master the craft of developing highly responsive applications, this walkthrough serves as your compass in the vast sea of reactive web development. Prepare to embark on an informative adventure that promises to reshape how you perceive and construct web applications with React and TanStack Store.

Understanding Reactive Applications in the Modern Web Ecosystem

Reactivity in the context of web applications refers to the ability of an app to update its user interface in real-time as the underlying data changes, without requiring a page refresh. This concept is crucial for modern web development, where user experiences are expected to be seamless, intuitive, and highly responsive. Reactivity is the cornerstone of engaging web applications, enabling developers to build interfaces that react to user interactions, network requests, and any other dynamic content seamlessly.

React has emerged as a pivotal technology in fostering reactivity in web applications. Its component-based architecture and efficient update mechanism make it an ideal choice for developing sophisticated user interfaces that require frequent updates. React achieves reactivity through its virtual DOM system, which optimizes rendering by only updating parts of the page that have changed, minimizing the performance cost of updates.

State management plays a significant role in implementing reactivity in applications built with React or similar libraries/frameworks. Proper state management ensures that the state of your application is predictable and manageable, even as it grows in complexity. This is where state management libraries like TanStack Store come into play, offering a streamlined and efficient way to manage global state across the entire app, thereby enhancing reactivity.

TanStack Store, specifically, stands out by providing a framework-agnostic, type-safe store with reactive framework adapters, including one for React. By centralizing state management and leveraging the power of reactivity, developers can ensure that their applications remain both performant and scalable. TanStack Store simplifies the synchronization of server state with the UI, making it easier to build applications that respond dynamically to user interactions and data changes.

Incorporating TanStack Store into React applications empowers developers to build reactive applications that are robust and maintainable. Leveraging the reactive capabilities of both React and TanStack Store allows for the creation of dynamic, real-time user interfaces that significantly improve the user experience. As applications continue to evolve with more complex interactions and data flows, the combination of React's efficient rendering and TanStack Store's state management capabilities will undoubtedly be instrumental in shaping the future of reactive web applications.

Introduction to TanStack Store: Elevating State Management in React

TanStack Store represents an evolution beyond traditional React state management solutions, originating from the foundational concepts introduced by React Query. It pivots towards a broader perspective on state management, embracing a global, app-wide scale while maintaining the library’s celebrated ease of use. This shift is significant, heralding a new approach that addresses both server and client state management complexities. By integrating the reactivity model into the heart of its design, TanStack Store offers a seamless experience for developers, allowing them to manage state with precision and efficiency.

Key to understanding TanStack Store's appeal is its lightweight and modular architecture. This design choice not only ensures that developers can enjoy a performance-optimized environment but also facilitates a more intuitive interaction with state management. TanStack Store employs a declarative API that simplifies state synchronization across components, making state-related logic more accessible and maintainable. This is a notable departure from other libraries that may require more boilerplate code or intricate patterns for managing complex state behaviors.

The integration with React is particularly elegant, leveraging hooks to make state management a natural part of the React component lifecycle. This synergy allows developers to fetch, cache, and update data with minimal effort, fostering a development environment where performance and productivity go hand in hand. The reactivity built into TanStack Store ensures that UI components are always in sync with the underlying data, providing a responsive and dynamic user experience.

Furthermore, TanStack Store distinguishes itself through its commitment to simplicity and developer experience. The library is engineered to abstract away the complexities normally associated with state management, such as handling asynchronous operations or managing the subtle nuances of React’s rendering behavior. Developers can focus more on crafting their application’s logic and less on the minutiae of state management, streamlining the development process.

In conclusion, TanStack Store emerges as a powerful and innovative solution for managing state in React applications. Its evolution from React Query marks a significant step forward, offering a more holistic and efficient approach to state management. By emphasizing simplicity, performance, and developer experience, it not only simplifies the incorporation of reactivity into web applications but also sets a new standard for what developers can expect from a state management library.

Building a Reactive Todo Application with TanStack Store

To build a reactive to-do application using TanStack Store in a React environment, start by setting up TanStack Store with a simple global state that will manage our to-do items. The first step is initializing the store. Install TanStack Store, then create a store.js file to define your global state. This state will hold our todos array and provide methods to manipulate this array (e.g., add a new todo and toggle the completion status of a todo).

import { createStore } from '@tanstack/store';

const useTodoStore = createStore({
  initialState: {
    todos: []
  actions: {
    addTodo: (state, newTodo) => {
      state.todos.push({ id:, text: newTodo, completed: false });
    toggleTodo: (state, todoId) => {
      const todo = state.todos.find(todo => === todoId);
      if (todo) {
        todo.completed = !todo.completed;
export default useTodoStore;

With the store defined, integrate it into your React components. Wrap your root component with StoreProvider from TanStack Store, providing it the store you've created. This makes the global state accessible throughout your React application.

import { QueryClientProvider } from '@tanstack/react-query';
import { StoreProvider } from '@tanstack/store-react';
import useTodoStore from './store';
import App from './App';

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(document.getElementById('root'));
  <StoreProvider store={useTodoStore}>
    <App />

Inside your components, use the state and actions defined in your store to build a reactive UI. For example, to display todos and add a new todo, use useStoreState and useStoreActions hooks to interact with your store's state and actions respectively. This approach ensures that any component which uses these hooks will re-render in response to state changes, maintaining reactivity.

function TodoList() {
  const todos = useTodoStore.useState(s => s.todos);
  const addTodo = useTodoStore.useActions(actions => actions.addTodo);

  return (
      <input type="text" onKeyPress={e => e.key === 'Enter' && addTodo(} />
      { => (
        <div key={}>{todo.text}</div>

By following the pattern of separating logic (state management) from the UI (components), we achieve a modular and reusable architecture. This separation simplifies the addition of features or modifications to the application logic without affecting the UI layer, adhering to best practices in the development of reactive applications. Furthermore, this example showcases the reactive nature of the UI components which automatically update in response to state changes, enabling a dynamic and interactive user experience without requiring complex boilerplate code or manual DOM updates.

This step-by-step process not only minimizes complexity but also emphasizes modularity and reusability by decoupling state management from UI rendering. The result is a maintainable codebase that is easier to debug, extend, and test, demonstrating the practicality of combining TanStack Store with React for building reactive applications.

One common pitfall that developers often encounter when using TanStack Store in their reactive applications is over-fetching data, which leads to unnecessary network requests and can significantly degrade performance. A correct approach is to utilize TanStack's caching capabilities efficiently. By leveraging automatic cache management, developers can reduce the number of requests to the server, ensuring that only the data which has changed or is not already available in the cache is fetched. This optimizes performance and minimizes bandwidth usage.

Another frequent mistake is not properly managing memory, leading to memory leaks which can slow down or even crash an application. Developers should ensure to clean up observers and listeners attached to the store when components unmount. This can be achieved by using effects (useEffect in React) with cleanup functions to detach any subscriptions to prevent memory leaks. It’s also beneficial to actively monitor the memory usage during development to identify and fix leaks early on.

When it comes to ensuring application scalability with TanStack Store, a common oversight is the lack of modularization of the store's structure. As applications grow, a monolithic store can become hard to maintain. The solution is to break down the store into smaller, more manageable modules that can be combined. This makes the codebase cleaner, easier to understand, and enhances reusability across different parts of the application.

Performance optimization is another critical area where developers can make significant improvements. One technique is debouncing or throttling store mutations in response to rapid user inputs. This prevents the application from becoming unresponsive by limiting the rate at which store updates are performed, thereby enhancing the user experience. Additionally, selectively rendering components by memoizing them ensures that only components dependent on the changed state are re-rendered, rather than the entire application.

Finally, developers must constantly question and evaluate their approaches to state management. For example, asking questions like "Is the current structure of the store optimal for the application’s needs?" or "Are there any redundant data fetches that could be eliminated?" encourages continuous improvement. By reflecting on such questions, developers can ensure that their application remains performant, scalable, and maintainable as it evolves.

Advanced Techniques and Real-World Use Cases

One of the advanced techniques in leveraging TanStack Store involves the implementation of optimistic updates. This strategy can significantly enhance user experience by immediately reflecting changes in the UI, assuming the server call will succeed, and then correcting the UI state if necessary based on the server response. For example, in a task management application, when a user marks a task as complete, the UI can instantly reflect this change before the server has confirmed it. If the server action fails, the application can rollback the optimistic update and inform the user of the error. This approach keeps the UI responsive and interactive, aligning with modern web application expectations.

Handling side effects gracefully is another critical aspect of using TanStack Store in complex scenarios. Side effects include updating related data in the store or performing actions like navigation post-mutation. An effective pattern is to use middleware or response interceptors that react to mutations. For instance, after a successful mutation that adds a new item to a list, a developer can implement a side effect to prefetch related items or update the UI to display the newly added item, ensuring the application's state stays consistent and reducing the need for additional data fetching.

In large-scale projects, employing TanStack Store requires careful consideration of modularity and reusability. Structuring the store in a way that allows reusing state logic across different parts of the application can significantly reduce boilerplate and improve maintainability. Splitting the store into modules, each handling a specific domain of the application, enables developers to compose application state in a scalable manner. This modular approach also facilitates easier testing and debugging, as each piece of state logic becomes more contained and predictable.

Real-world code examples showcasing these advanced strategies can significantly aid in understanding their implementation. Consider a scenario where an application allows users to comment on posts. An optimistic update would immediately add the comment to the UI while awaiting server confirmation. If the server rejects the comment, the application could use a rollback mechanism to remove the optimistic comment and notify the user. Implementing this would involve intercepting the mutation’s promise and, on success, doing nothing, while on failure, triggering a rollback action defined within the store.

function postCommentOptimistically(commentData) {
    const rollbackData = store.comments.add(commentData, { optimistic: true });
        .then(response => {
            // Optionally update with server-returned data
        .catch(error => {
            // Rollback optimistic update
            // Handle error, e.g., show a notification

Encouraging the adaptation and extension of TanStack Store's capabilities to fit unique application requirements can unlock a new level of flexibility and power in state management. By employing optimistic updates, handling side effects thoughtfully, and embracing modularity, developers can create rich, interactive, and efficient web applications that stand the test of scalability and complexity.


This article explores the concept of building reactive applications using React and TanStack Store. It discusses the importance of reactivity in modern web development and how React's component-based architecture and TanStack Store's state management capabilities enable the creation of dynamic and responsive user interfaces. The article also provides a step-by-step guide on building a reactive todo application with TanStack Store in React. Key takeaways from the article include understanding the essence of reactivity, leveraging TanStack Store's lightweight and modular architecture, navigating common pitfalls and optimizing performance, and exploring advanced techniques and real-world use cases. As a challenging technical task, readers are encouraged to implement optimistic updates in their applications and handle side effects gracefully using TanStack Store.

Don't Get Left Behind:
The Top 5 Career-Ending Mistakes Software Developers Make
FREE Cheat Sheet for Software Developers