Adapting to the Deprecation of createStore: Strategies for Redux Developers

Anton Ioffe - January 7th 2024 - 9 minutes read

In the ever-evolving world of Redux, the deprecation of createStore in version 5.0.0 marks a pivotal chapter for developers who pride themselves on building robust applications with efficient state management. This article delves deep into the strategic maneuvers required to adapt to this significant change, guiding seasoned Redux developers through the complexities of embracing configureStore and the nuanced intricacies of modern action type handling. As we navigate through the subtleties of advanced store configuration and middleware refinement, prepare to arm yourself with actionable insights and code examples aimed at seamless transition and elevated code practices—ensuring your Redux architecture remains at the forefront of scalability and maintainability.

createStore was synonymous with Redux's original philosophy of clear and precise state management, granting developers full authority over the construction of their state container. Conversely, configureStore introduces a method that encapsulates the intricacies of store setup, an adaptation by Redux in order to meet the growing complexity of JavaScript application development.

The sunset of createStore in Redux v5.0.0 marks a strategic shift towards prepared configurations and automatic store setup. This transition endows configureStore with the responsibility to streamline the store creation process. This adjustment significantly reduces boilerplate setup, while maintaining the essential degree of customizability.

// Prior approach: createStore with explicit middleware application
import { createStore, applyMiddleware } from 'redux';
import thunk from 'redux-thunk';
import rootReducer from './reducers';

const store = createStore(

// New approach: configureStore with simplified setup
import { configureStore } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';
import rootReducer from './reducers';

// Middleware and DevTools integration are included by default
const store = configureStore({
  reducer: rootReducer,

configureStore refines the process of state registration, offering a more concise and approachable API. It equips developers with a set of tools designed for today's challenges while allowing for tailored extensions in the setup.

Using createStore continues to be an option, devoid of immediate runtime penalties, but slowly distances codebases from the cutting-edge practices and communal guidelines that configureStore embodies. It prompts thoughtful consideration on transitioning strategies: How can developers gracefully transition from createStore, leveraging the strengths of configureStore while respecting Redux's core philosophies? Such a balanced approach is critical for developers as they navigate through the changing currents of Redux's state management paradigms.

Embracing configureStore: The New Redux Vanguard

As developers continue to expand and refine their Redux implementations, configureStore emerges as a cornerstone, providing an enhanced paradigm for managing state in modern web applications. It arrives out of the box with a bevy of enhancements over the traditional createStore. One significant advantage is its in-built middleware configuration, dramatically streamlining the integration of essential tools such as redux-thunk or redux-saga. This offers a level of convenience that permits developers to focus more on business logic, rather than the intricacies of middleware setup.

In addition to middleware, Redux Toolkit's configureStore also delivers automatic integration with the Redux DevTools Extension. This inclusion simplifies developers' workflows by removing the need to manually wire up the development tools, a common source of boilerplate in earlier Redux configurations. The resulting gain in productivity is palpable, as it ensures that valuable developer time is invested in feature development rather than configuration overhead.

With configureStore, Redux also reinforces best practices by promoting immutability and serializability checks as part of its default configuration. These checks are vital for avoiding common pitfalls in state management, such as unintended mutations or non-serializable values in the state tree. The automatic detection and warning of such issues help ensure that the codebase remains healthy and maintainable over time, providing guardrails that keep developers on a path aligned with Redux's core principles.

The performance aspect is another crucial area where configureStore shines, offering baked-in enhancements such as the Redux Toolkit's default middleware suite. This suite is carefully curated to avoid negatively impacting application performance, thus giving developers one less parameter to micromanage. It is especially beneficial for those aiming to optimize the responsiveness and speed of their applications without sacrificing the robustness of their state management strategy.

Furthermore, the migration from createStore to configureStore represents a seismic shift toward a more standardized Redux experience. By setting a new precedent for Redux configuration, configureStore removes much of the decision fatigue associated with setting up and maintaining the store. This transition not only encourages uniformity across the Redux ecosystem but also eases the learning curve for new developers, ensuring that the focus remains on building scalable, high-quality applications.

Managing State Types: From AnyAction to UnknownAction

The adoption of type safety assurances in Redux v5.0.0 is exemplified by the shift from permissive AnyAction types to a paradigm where all action properties, besides type, are deemed unknown. A direct outcome of this shift is the requirement for developers to engage in deliberative type assertions—a positive push toward greater predictability in state management workflows. This move calls for meticulous action object shaping to avoid the loose addition of properties that AnyAction previously facilitated, thereby reducing the risk of runtime type errors.

import { Action } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';

function logAction(action: Action) {
    if ('type' in action) {
        // Action is verified to be an object with a 'type' property.

To illustrate the benefits of this reinforcement, consider the previously common, but risky, practice of adding unchecked properties to action objects. The example below shows how this practice can be remedied through appropriate type guarding in TypeScript:

// Prior incorrect usage with AnyAction, allowing action to be any shape
function logActionWithPayload(action: Action<any>) {
    console.log(action.payload); // No TypeScript error, prone to runtime errors

// Refined usage, utilizing type guards to ensure 'payload' exists
function logActionWithPayload(action: Action) {
    if ('payload' in action) {
        // Payload existence on action is now assured
    } else {
        console.error('Property "payload" is missing from action');

Adapting middleware to dovetail with these type refinements necessitates a diligent approach to action type inspection. By rejecting indeterminate action shapes at the middleware level, we enforce conformity to expected action templates for consistent management throughout the application's lifecycle.

import { MiddlewareAPI, Dispatch, Action } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';
import { isActionOf } from 'typesafe-actions';
import { myAction } from './actionCreators';

const myMiddleware = ({ dispatch, getState }: MiddlewareAPI) => 
    (next: Dispatch) => 
    (action: Action) => {
        if (isActionOf(myAction, action)) {
            // Action is confirmed to be of the 'myAction' type

Transitioning to this revised type-centric approach mandates developers conduct a comprehensive audit of their action creators and middleware, spurring inquiries such as: Have all actions been rigorously redefined with the proper types? Are middlewares equipped with appropriate type checking mechanisms? Embracing the transformed landscape prescribed by Redux v5.0.0 involves critical analysis of historical coding practices, aligning them with the newly minted standards of type safety to construct a robust and sustainable application state management structure.

Refining Actions: String Literals and Beyond

In the evolution toward a more predictable and debuggable Redux environment, we see a definitive shift from diverse action types to strictly string literals. This change comes with a substantial implication for the refactoring of existing actions. A solid approach is a meticulous audit of action types currently in use, with a focus on detecting any non-string patterns. The subsequent step involves a disciplined and incremental replacement with string literals, ensuring that new action types are clearly described and uniformly applied.

Legacy codebases may encounter significant friction when transitioning away from action types like Symbols, necessitating a transition to string literals to maintain compatibility with Redux's current standards. It is common for developers to inadvertently overlook the rigidity required in the typing of action creators. To mitigate against this, a pattern of best practice would include the declaration of a tightly-coupled interface for each action:

// Defining a string literal type for the action

// Interface for the action ensuring type safety
interface MyAction {
    type: typeof ACTION_TYPE;
    payload: MySpecificPayload;

// Correctly-typed action creator
function myAction(payload: MySpecificPayload): MyAction {
    return {
        type: ACTION_TYPE,

This practice safeguards the state management process by preventing the dispatch of inaccurately typed actions, thereby enhancing the reliability and maintainability of the codebase.

The enforcement of string literals for action types does raise the bar for TypeScript fluency across development teams. In middleware and reducers, actions now require explicit type annotations to guarantee their proper processing:

// Middleware example ensuring action type safety
const myMiddleware = store => next => action => {
    if (action.type === ACTION_TYPE) {
        // Proceed knowing action is of MyAction type
        // Process action here
    return next(action);

Implementing stringent type-checking, while demanding, fortifies applications against misprocessed actions and aligns with a conscientious development approach.

In tackling the refined action types, developers are pressed to contemplate the trade-offs of complexity versus simplicity. String literals, while favorable for serialization, introduce an initial layer of development overhead. Nevertheless, the uniform action signatures reduce long-term technical debt and the potential for bugs. How can developers refine their action construction to integrate seamlessly with string types, ensuring a smooth serialization process and consistent application behavior? It's this kind of foresight and strategic planning that should be at the heart of action management within contemporary Redux practices.

Adapting to Advanced Store Configuration and Middleware

In Redux v5.0.0, advanced store configuration and middleware integration are essential to leverage the full capabilities of the improved library. The Redux Toolkit's configureStore method and getDefaultMiddleware function play vital roles in this process. By replacing the once-standard createStore, configureStore brings a high-level abstraction that sets you up with sensible defaults. Crucially, it incorporates essential middleware, enhancing developer experience and application stability.

To take advantage of these enhancements, developers must familiarize themselves with the configuration options available. configureStore automatically includes a suite of middleware, including Redux Thunk by default, via getDefaultMiddleware. This curated set is particularly focused on ensuring immutability and serializability of your store's state. Here's a stylized example of how one might set up the store with additional custom middleware while preserving these defaults:

import { configureStore } from '@reduxjs/toolkit';
import rootReducer from './reducers';
import customMiddleware from './middleware/customMiddleware';

export const store = configureStore({
  reducer: rootReducer,
  middleware: (getDefaultMiddleware) =>

In the example, we call getDefaultMiddleware within the configureStore method, passing it to the middleware array. The use of .concat(customMiddleware) at the end ensures that your custom middleware is added without disrupting the defaults, thus maintaining the library's intended safeguard against common redux pitfalls.

Now, while configureStore abstracts much of the complexity associated with manually setting up the store, developers should still be mindful of the performance implications. The middleware included by default is chosen for its general utility and minimal impact on performance. However, adding multiple custom middleware or using particularly resource-intensive middleware could degrade your application's responsiveness or processing speed. It is critical to measure the performance impacts after incorporating new middleware and to make educated decisions about the value each middleware adds versus its cost to performance.

Furthermore, by requiring developers to explicitly declare custom middleware within the store configuration, configureStore encourages better maintenance practices. The constraints imposed by a more structured setup prevent ill-advised alterations to middleware at runtime, which can introduce not just bugs but also scalability problems. Modularity is favored, as each piece of middleware can be separately developed, tested, and debugged, greatly enhancing the ease with which the codebase can be understood and worked upon.

The ease of maintainability extends beyond just creating less complex code to also creating code that is more uniform and consistent across different developers and teams. This consistency provided by configureStore, especially when combined with TypeScript's type-safe environment, fortifies Redux's position as a predictable state management tool suitable for complex applications. Reflect on your middleware's capabilities: Does it comply with Redux's updated statutes on serializability and immutability? How can it be refactored to synergize with Redux v5.0.0's advanced store configuration?

By embracing Redux Toolkit’s configureStore and the middleware architecture it promotes, you ensure not just a smoother development experience but also a more robust, maintainable, and performance-sensitive application. The proficiency gained in this domain will undeniably be a lasting asset in contemporary web development.


The article discusses the deprecation of createStore in Redux 5.0.0 and introduces configureStore as the new method for store configuration. It highlights the advantages of configureStore, such as simplified setup, built-in middleware and DevTools integration, and performance enhancements. The article also explores the shift from AnyAction to unknown action types and the importance of type safety in managing state. The challenging task for readers is to review their action creators and middleware to ensure they conform to the new standards of type safety and serialization.

Don't Get Left Behind:
The Top 5 Career-Ending Mistakes Software Developers Make
FREE Cheat Sheet for Software Developers